Transfer RNA or tRNA as the name suggests does the process of transferring the RNA molecules. It carries the amino acids through the cells to organelles called as ribosomes based on nucleotide sequence. The tRNA acts as intermediate for the transfer of amino acids.
To be more precise, the sole purpose of tRNA is to bring the protein subunits to the ribosomes where the protein is synthesized. They are nothing but ribonucleic acids that can read the genetic code and bind with specific amino acids, it forms hydrogen bonds with the messenger ribonucleic acid and is capable of transporting mRNA and amino acids through a process called translation.
Transfer RNA has primary, secondary and tertiary structure. It has three loops called anticodon loop, d loop and t loop. In the cell cytoplasm there are about 60-70 different types of tRNA. The primary structure comprises about 70 to 90 nucleotides. The initial three nucleotides constitutes the anticodon which is the most important part of the transfer RNA, however the d-loop and t-loop also contribute to the efficiency of the tRNA. The anticodon and d-loop remains standard for all living organism however the third variable t loop varies depending on the species.
Functions of tRNA
The main function of tRNA is to read the genetic information of nucleotides and translate into protein subunits also called as amino acids. This process is called translation. Proteins are made up of amino acids which are important for building and repairing tissues. Ribosomes, which are at the sites in the synthesizing of protein constitutes ribosomal RNA or rRNA, and ribosomal proteins.
Human organs, tissues and muscles are made of protein, hence formation or synthesizing of protein is very essential for the normal function of the human body. tRNA plays a vital role in this process.